A solar inverter can be defined as an electrical converter that converts the uneven DC (direct current) output of a solar panel to AC (alternating current). This current can be used for different applications, for example in a viable grid or in an off-grid grid. In photovoltaic systems, this is a dangerous BOS (system balance) component, which allows the use of conventional AC power supply equipment. These inverters have certain functions of PV arrays, such as tracking PowerPoint and anti-island protection to the greatest extent. If we use solar energy systems in the house, the selection and installation of inverters are very important. Therefore, the inverter is an indispensable device in the solar power generation system.
The working principle of a solar inverter is to use the power of a DC power source (such as a solar panel) and convert it to AC power. The generated power ranges from 250 V to 600V. This conversion process can be accomplished by a group of IGBTs (insulated gate bipolar transistors). When these solid-state devices are connected in the form of an H-bridge, it will oscillate from DC to AC.
A step-up transformer is used so that AC power can be captured and fed into the grid. Compared with inverters with transformers, some designers have begun to design inverters without transformers, which have higher efficiency.
In any solar inverter system, a pre-programmed microcontroller is used to accurately execute different algorithms. The controller uses the MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking) algorithm to increase the output power of the solar panel.